Netiquette: how to behave online

Have you ever heard of the term netiquette? This portmanteau neatly combines the words network and etiquette and refers to how we should behave online. There are even Netiquette Guidelines, less commonly known as RFC 1855 and published in 1995, which set out all the rules to be followed on the world wide web to improve online communication, which sometimes seems more like organised chaos.

Here we have compiled a brief summary of the most important rules to follow:
Capitals: should not be used to write entire words or sentences as it gives the impression of shouting in a disrespectful manner;
Title: always choose a concise title which allows the reader to immediately understand the ideas behind main text;
– Avoid writing too much or barbed/aggressive texts: always write using clear and concise language in a polite manner, even when countering an argument or expressing a diverse opinion to that of the reader. It is also recommended to wrap the text in order to make it readable on any computer or any mobile device.
Syntax/spelling/punctuation errors: try to avoid making basic errors (reading the text again helps – take our word for it) and at the same time do not rudely berate someone if they have committed such errors in a way as to make them feel stupid or ignorant.
Privacy: never publish texts or images from other sources without citing the source (e.g. publishing the link) nor should you publish sensitive data, photos or contents of an email or other message without the author’s consent.
Emoticons: use the so-called smileys sparingly, whilst on one hand they can be used to lighten the language used on social media, they can easily cause misunderstandings or lower the register too much.

Remember… verba volant, scripta manent!

New Email Domain and Office 365 for Intrawelt®

The process of internationalisation launched over the last twelve months continues. Intrawelt® has decided to consolidate its corporate brand identity by switching all email addresses to the single domain

The new addresses went live in November for all employees, from our project managers to our business development directors in Italy, Germany and the UK. To guarantee service continuity, during this initial phase of the transition we will also continue to receive emails sent to the old domains (, and
In addition to a single domain, we have also switched to Microsoft Office 365. This platform allows greater optimisation of project management procedures and increased data security, both for the company and our customers. All employees are now able to access Office applications, including email, both online and offline, allowing them to better manage their work anytime, anywhere and from any device. Microsoft Office 365 also provides Intrawelt® users with a wide variety of new communication and sharing tools which will strengthen and simplify internal and external communications.

Recent brand identity, communication and sharing developments will allow Intrawelt® to consolidate its strong reputation and credibility in the language-services sector. It will also allow the company to clearly communicate its increasingly international nature to the market.

From Le Marche, Italy to international markets: Intrawelt® has been speaking the world’s languages since 1991

Always in step with the times and firmly focussed on the future. Intrawelt® has consolidated its leadership in the sector of translation, interpreting and multilingual document-management services thanks to the skills and professionalism it has developed and consolidated during its 26 years of business. Over a quarter of a century of experience and a client portfolio full of big Italian and international names are a guarantee of our high-quality professional language services. Furthermore, we are certified by TÜV Italia, an internationally recognised body that closely monitors production cycles and project management in order to ensure an excellent service.

Intrawelt® was established on 14 January 1991 thanks to the vision of Alessandro Potalivo who, having finished his studies at the prestigious faculty of Translation and Interpreting at the University of Bologna, decided to launch himself into the field of multilingual document management with an agency targeting the flourishing local market and with an eye, even at this early stage, to expansion on the international market. This challenge was set on a solid base of linguistic training and a great passion for intercultural mediation, as well as experience in the sector acquired during a course of studies involving work with translation agencies in Bologna and local businesses in Le Marche. The initial idea was to create a network of clients – locally and also further afield – in need of high-quality linguistic services. An ambitious and challenging project, which grew with time and really took off in 1995 thanks to the advent of the Internet.

In fact, the internet brought a veritable explosion of content to the sector, opening new doors for Intrawelt’s commercial expansion. At Intrawelt®, we did not let this opportunity pass us by, establishing ourselves on the national and international markets with new collaborations.

At the heart of Intrawelt’s success is our philosophy of transparent project management for clients. A relationship of trust is formed from the very beginning, based on total collaboration between parties. We listen and adapt to the needs of our clients, but without compromising our workflow which has proved fundamental over the years in guaranteeing an excellent service.

Intrawelt® has grown significantly over its 26 years of business. From a small office with a team of just two, we have become a well-defined structure with 25 in-house professionals who assess the demands of a constantly evolving market every day: the establishment of the internet on a global scale has produced an exponential increase in competition, raising quality standards for language services. We do not shy away from this challenge. In fact, it only makes us more ambitious, as our offices around Italy and Europe demonstrate: from Rome, Milan and Perugia, to Munich and London. An extensive network of contacts serves as a concrete and indisputable testament to the quality of our services.

Intrawelt® has always been a leader in the sector, also in terms of technology. Back in 1991, we offered cutting-edge services thanks to the first document management systems, and today we make use of all the latest-generation project management tools: large server and databases to optimise workflow, cutting-edge software to aid the translation process and graphic and desktop-publishing services combined with many other tools that make Intrawelt® a complete solution for the management of multilingual documents from editing original drafts to creating high-resolution documents for publication.

Unmissable SDL Trados Offer!

Are you a young freelance translator still making up your mind about which CAT tool to buy? Or are you an experienced professional, well-acquainted with SDL, but need to update your version of Trados Studio?
Intrawelt® can lend a helping hand. SDL Trados Studio 2017 represents an increasingly customizable and flexible product that meets all kinds of translation needs. The latest version offers many advantages: partial matches through the Fuzzy Match Repair function, an OCR tool that works with Asian languages, upLIFT Fragment Recall technology that automatically searches for previously-translated sub-segments, and much more.
We’d like to explain why, here at Intrawelt®, we’ve decided to promote the use of this tool, that is now an essential part of the translation industry.
As one of SDL’s long-standing official partners, Intrawelt® is part of the SDL LSP Partner Program, a world-wide community composed of translation agencies who make use of increasingly advanced technology and find common ground in the principles of high productivity and excellent quality standards. These complementary goals now underpin our work.
Thanks to our role as Advantage Plus Partner, we can offer all translators we collaborate with (signed up to our internal database, eGeTrad). an amazing benefit. So, what’s the offer? The exceptional opportunity to take advantage of a 32% discount when upgrading to the latest version of SDL Trados Studio or buying an SDL Trados Studio 2017 Freelance or SDL Trados Studio 2017 Freelance Plus license. However, the offer is only running until 31 December 2017 for the first 10 people that send an email to this address:
Take advantage of this fantastic opportunity to stay connected and up-to-date with SDL. They are the undisputed world-leaders in translation technology, language services and content management. They offer great support to professionals in the industry allowing them to translate quicker and modify, review and manage translation projects and multilingual terminology.

Ferragosto at Intrawelt, what will we be doing?

What is Ferragosto?

Ferragosto is Italy’s August Bank Holiday, on 15 August every year. It coincides with the Catholic celebration of the Assumption of Mary and is marked by celebrations such as outdoor concerts and parties, food festivals, and firework displays all across Italy. The celebration of “Feriae Augusti” was introduced by the 1st Emperor of the Roman Empire, Augustus to link with the other holidays celebrated in the month of August, forming a ‘ponte’ (bridge) and giving all the hardworking people of Italy (like us!) a long weekend to relax and/or party. This way, we can all come back to the office on Tuesday 16 refreshed after our weekends of socializing, bathing in the beautiful waters surrounding Italy, and eating, as food plays a BIG part of any celebration!

Everybody here at Intrawelt is making plans for the best way to spend the break. From trips to other regions of Italy such as Puglia, to it’s beautiful beaches for a traditional Ferragosto ‘bagno di mezzanotte’ (midnight swim); afternoons spent admiring the wonders of the Adriatic further along the coast (we love the shallow waters of Abruzzo, the beautiful natural beaches of the Riviera del Conero, and just about every other beach in between!); social gatherings with local friends or a total escape with a trip to Essaouira, Morocco!

This is the main weekend of the year where everybody abandons the cities and heads to the seaside! Each coastal town organizes its own special events and Porto Sant’Elpidio is no exception! Those of us sticking around will be attending the ‘Notte dei Desideri’ (Night of Wishes) which includes the popular tradition of releasing sky lanterns into the night and making a wish; this year’s edition of ‘Una Ragazza per il Cinema’ (A girl for the Cinema), established in 1989 as an occasion for hopeful actresses to show off their talents in a competition to be Italy’s next star on the silver screen; the Super Summer Games giving us all the chance to enjoy some live music; and last but not least – as food is perhaps one of the most important parts of any Italian celebration – Porto Sant’Elpidio is providing an evening of international cuisine ‘Sapori dal Mondo’!

So, from all of us at Intrawelt, we wish you a happy Ferragosto! Our offices will only be closed on Monday 15, and we’ll be back to work on Tuesday!

Image: Di Luca Boldrini – Flickr: sirolo, CC BY 2.0,

Machine Translation – Error 404: Accurate translation not found.

In our August article on the subject of translation apps at the Rio Olympics we searched for the best machine translation apps currently available to download. Of course any translator knows that when it comes to professional translation, machine translation will often not be associated with the adjective best; but hey, the machines need some credit!

Often a source of humour, the texts produced by machine translations are constantly evolving as, for some reason, we humans believe that one day machines will be able to do absolutely everything for us! In today’s society it’s rare that anybody does anything without some type of machine, even professional translators use CAT tools powered by machines to aid their levels of productivity and quality management; but unlike Machine Translation, CAT tools don’t produce an entire translation for you.

Machine translation systems spit out all sorts of absurdities. Whether it is used by lazy students, restaurant owners, or tourists, machines give instant results sometimes accompanied by undesirable consequences.

Apart from the mistakes highlighted in the image below, there are many other inaccuracies within the text that make it an inconsistent and low-quality translation:


Machine translation systems can be useful for gist purposes or if you have knowledge of both languages, but for those who do not have the latter it can have disastrous consequences. There is also a question of privacy and security, once entered into an online machine translation service such as Google Translate, your client’s or your own sensitive data is no longer privacy protected.

In September, Google announced a great advance in their technology: Google Neural Machine Translation system (GNMT). The system is claimed to provide results that are so accurate it is difficult to tell, upon comparison, which is the machine translation and human translation. However, we can assure you that for the foreseeable future, Human Translation is the way forward for accurate and high-quality results.

Although we support the constant evolution of technology, and as professional translators we may be considered slightly biased, we believe that machines will never be able to fully replace human translators, nor will machines ever replace the need for language learning. There are simply too many constantly-changing facets of complexity in a language to successfully be interpreted solely by a machine without the intuition of a human being.

Sources: Wikipedia Commons;

Harry Potter and the Many Mysterious Translations

The “8th” instalment of the series, Harry Potter and the Cursed Child – Parts One & Two (Special Rehearsal Edition Script), the Official Script Book of the Original West End Production, was released on 31 July 2016 in the UK, Harry Potter’s birthday. The first batch of tickets have now sold out for the Production in London’s West End. Fans all over the world are awaiting the release of the book in the official language of their countries, as translators only receive a copy of the text once the English version has been published and is on sale in the UK.

The first book in the Harry Potter series was released in the UK on 26 June 1997 – yes, we too are surprised at how long ago that actually was – and the franchise has since been one of the most successful of all time. Continuously breaking records such as most sold in countries all over the world, it is safe to say the 7 first books of the franchise are international bestsellers. Not only are the books famous worldwide, but so are the eight films, the related works by J.K. Rowling, the studios in London (a must see!), the theme park in Florida, the merchandise and much, much more!

Such a huge fan base is of course due to the sheer brilliance of the storytelling achieved by J.K. Rowling. As a translation agency however, without detracting from the incredible accomplishments of Rowling, we automatically think of the massive role played by translators in the success of the franchise; without the translated versions of the books and films (available in over 60 languages) a lot of the fans would not have been able to access the wonderful Wizarding World.

In the British English version alone there are many peculiarities, interesting places and creatures, and new words; the foreign language versions don’t disappoint, as well as highly accurate translations, they adapt the curious made-up names to the target language. Some of our favourite examples of these are:

  • In Italian, Minerva McGonagall becomes Minerva McGranitt, Albus Dumbledore (from the English bumblebee) becomes Albus Silente and Neville Longbottom becomes Neville Paciock, while the word for squib (a wizard by blood but with no magic powers) is simply magonò (meaning wizard-no), and the translation of Hufflepuff (one of the four houses at Harry’s school) is Tassorosso (meaning Redbadger).
  • The French and the Brazilian Portuguese versions for Hufflepuff are perhaps closer to the English word than the connotations of the words themselves; French opted for Poufsouffle, whereas the Brazilian Portuguese opted for Lufa-Lufa.

Clearly the translators who worked on the series have been extremely creative, finding ways to keep the magic of the books alive even in translation, each with their own approach to the process. The Italian versions were translated by two different people, one translator carried out the adaptation of the first 3 books, whilst another worked on the last 4 books; however, the discrepancies between the names of some objects and people of the Wizarding World did not go unnoticed by Italian fans, showing again the central role of consistency in translation quality.

Translation and magic aren’t all that different you know!

Have a Gander at that Gaggle of Geese!

Collective or mass nouns assigned to different groups of animals are perhaps one of the most curious peculiarities of the English language; with evidence of some terms originating in the fifteenth century, used amongst the privileged members of society for hunting activities. There are a number of books, know as Books of Courtesy from these times that included extensive lists of collective nouns, the most famous of these are perhaps the The Egerton Manuscript and The Book of St Albans.

Many of the terms relate to the behaviour, physical characteristics or other well known features of the animals themselves and therefore have a variety of connotations. For example, within the category of mammals listed below we can already observe some terms that relate to the abovementioned features.

Apes tend to have a powerful presence and due to their great stature can come across as quite commanding and dominant, this could perhaps be why their collective name is troop. Apes are also well known for their intelligence, which provides an explanation as to why the other collective noun assigned to apes is shrewdness.

Camels received their collective nouns of caravan or train as they are often the main form of transport for humans and/or products across the desert.


The mass noun given to a group of raccoons is gaze, and we can see why. Their dark eyes, and the fur that surrounds them, do give the impression that the raccoons are fixated by something, or someone – adorable, we know!


Apes – Shrewdness, Troop Leopards – Leap
Camels – Caravan, Train Moles – Labour, Company, Movement
Cheetahs – Coalition Raccoons – Gaze
Giraffes – Tower Zebras – Zeal, Crossing, Dazzle, Cohorts, Herd
Hedgehogs – Array
Hippopotamuses – Bloat

As for our feathered friends, these have what one might call, slightly more sofisticated names – in some cases.

A general group of game can be called a volary, a brace or a plump, whilst a group of owls can be referred to as a parliament or a stare.

There is something quite comical however about imagining a raft, team or paddling of ducks, a mob of emus, or a gaggle of geese; playing on the behaviour and daily activities of the animal, the stature or the sounds they make.


Birds (Game) – Volary, Brace, Plump Birds (Ground) – Flock, Dissimulation
Birds (Sea) – Wreck Geese (Flight) – Skein
Ducks (Water) – Raft, Team, Paddling Geese (Ground) – Gaggle, Herd, Corps
Emus – Mob Magpies – Tiding, Gulp, Murder, Charm
Geese (General) – Flock

Other animal group nouns follow this pattern and similar criteria has been used to establish their collective noun; often, also using how humans perceive them. For example, nobody wants an intrusion of cockroaches in their house, or a plague of locusts!


Fish (General) – Draft, Nest, Shoal, School

Reptiles and Amphibians

Alligators – Congregation

Athropods and Mollusks

Ants – Colony, Army, Swarm, Nest Locusts – Plague
Cockroaches – Intrusion Snails – Escargatoire, Rout, Walk
Lice – Flock

And what do you call a group of translators, spotted together in the wild? We’ll leave that up to your imagination…

Words on Film

Ever wondered what your favourite film is called in another language? Translators have to make a crucial decision with film titles; creating a different title based on an aspect of the film or opting for a literal translation of the original title, possibly involving a little localisation. Both of these options have to ensure the film has as much success with the translated title as it does with the original title.

One example of conveying the meaning of the original title whilst using localisation can be seen in the Hebrew title of the 2009 animation ‘Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs’ released in Israel.

‘Meatballs’ are a common western food, yet in Israel ‘falafel’ is perhaps more well-known; therefore the title became ‘Rain of falafel’ (Geshem Shel Falafel). Although it actually still rained meatballs in the film, the title itself attracted the necessary amount of spectators, as the word ‘falafel’ resounded with them as a traditional food of their country.

South American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela also ditched ‘meatballs’ in favour of the more popular  ‘hamburger’. Meatballs aside, the rest of the title of this animated film also underwent a transformation in nearly all countries.

Excluding Brazil, the aforementioned South American countries opted for the cloudless ‘Hamburger rain’ (Lluvia de hamburguesas), whilst Brazil went for ‘It’s raining hamburgers’ (Tá Chovendo Hambúrguer). Similar to the South American translations, Castilian Spanish chose to eliminate the clouds and translate the title as ‘Meatball rain’ (Lluvia de albóndigas), ‘albóndigas’ being a typical dish on the Iberian Peninsula. The Canadian French title also varies from the French title, using ‘It’s raining hamburgers’ (Il pleut des hamburgers) and ‘Storm of meatballs’ (Tempête de boulettes géantes), respectively.

Ever heard of ‘Tutti insieme appassionatamente’  (All Together, Passionately) or perhaps seen the musical? Maybe if we told you that it was actually ‘The Sound of Music’, you’d be able to answer. Yes, creative film title translations have been around for decades, alongside musical, book and TV programme titles.

The Italian translation of this classic is certainly not the most curious, nearly all South American countries chose ‘The rebellious novice’ (La novicia rebelde), Spain chose ‘Smiles and tears’ (Sonrisas y lágrimas) and Germany chose ‘My songs, my dreams’ (Meine Lieder, meine Träume), perhaps closer to the original title than some of the others, as it is the only one that makes a more direct reference to music.

Whilst the translated titles of the next two films remained very close to the original, we did find one peculiarity. Two classic cinematographic productions, ‘A Clockwork Orange’ (1971) and ‘The Big Lebowski’ (1998) use the same Italian word for two different English words. ‘A Clockwork Orange’, uses ‘drughi’ as a translation of ‘droogs’ (the characters that form part of protagonist’s gang of thugs) whilst ‘The Big Lebowski’, uses ‘drugo’ as a translation of ‘dude’ (Jeff “the Dude” Lebowski, becomes ‘drugo’).

In the first case, the word ‘droog’ (‘drughi’, plural of ‘drugo’) is said to originate from the Russian word for ‘friend’ (the literal  translation in to Italian is ‘amico’) and forms part of the made up language that resembles Russian in the film. In the second case ‘dude’ is translated as ‘drugo’. The connotations of ‘dude’ often imply a certain level of familiarity and friendship, similar to ‘friend’.

So dudes, we hope the next film you watch is as creative as its title!

Our Top 5 must reads this week

arrival_2016_filmWith the arrival of the film, wait for it… Arrival (couldn’t resist!), Slate published an article featuring an interview with “Betty Birner, a professor of linguistics and cognitive science at Northern Illinois University” who provides an interesting insight into the film.

MOANA is an adventurous, tenacious and compassionate 16-year-old who sails out on a daring mission to save her people. Along the way, she discovers the one thing she's always sought: her own identity. Directed by the renowned filmmaking team of Ron Clements and John Musker (“The Little Mermaid,” “Aladdin,” “The Princess & the Frog”) and featuring newcomer Auli'I Cravalho as the voice of Moana, Walt Disney Animation Studios' “Moana” sails into U.S. theaters on Nov. 23, 2016. ©2016 Disney. All Rights Reserved.

And from the same article author, Marissa Martinelli, we learned why Moana is a MoaNO in Italy; showing just how important localisation really is!


Putting some locomotion into the topic of localisation we think Chiara Ferrari’s article on “strategies employed in translating The Simpsons” makes it clear just how extensive and creative some changes need to be. Learn why Moe becomes Boe in Italian and how the writers get creative with the use of Italian regional accents!


As Brexit talks continue and the Italian Referendum approaches, this article touches upon whether the word “Brexit” in other languages should be a masculine or a feminine noun.

unknown-1769656_960_720And finally, moving on from the discussion of masculine/feminine we liked this article on the subject of plurals. Maybe it was because of the pictures of cats in hats, or the fact that you stop and think about the words listed; this post from the OxfordWords blog makes our top 5 this week!

Happy reading!